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​ I have attached screen shot of the error. A: You should use following link to recover your account During the last 15 years, intensive focus has been on uncovering the mechanisms regulating the induction of bone resorption. These studies have revealed that bone resorption is regulated by the differential activities of two classes of cytokines. One class of cytokines is inhibitory while the other class is stimulatory. The inhibitory factors include transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). On the other hand, the stimulatory factors include parathyroid hormone (PTH), interleukin-11 (IL-11) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). This review focuses on the role of IL-6 in bone metabolism. IL-6 shares, at the molecular level, many characteristics with IL-1. This cytokine is produced by many cell types including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts. IL-6 not only induces the differentiation of mesenchymal cells to the osteoblast lineage but also promotes osteoblast differentiation from bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in the presence of PTH. In contrast, IL-6 suppresses the osteoblast differentiation of BMSC in the presence of PTH. It also inhibits the differentiation of the committed osteoclast precursor cells from myeloid progenitor cells. IL-6 also promotes the differentiation of committed osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts. Finally, IL-6 synergizes with TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha to induce osteoclastogenesis. IL-6-deficient mice are protected from ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Their T cells are deficient in IL-6 production. However, IL-6 is not essential for the inhibition of TNF-alpha production by ovariectomy. Thus, the protective effect of IL-6 is independent of its ability to suppress TNF-alpha. In addition, IL-6 may act via a PTH-independent pathway to regulate bone mass. The available data suggest that IL-6 could be a cytokine critically involved in the regulation of bone mass and the pathogenesis of certain bone diseases




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Facebook Account Hacker V 5.1 Password [March-2022]

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